Preparation for 3D Filament, Dimension Uniformity & 3D Printability of PLA/PCL/HAp Bio-Composite Material

There are many various ways in forming bio-composites, since it is also a composite using bio-compatible materials, similar processes can be used to for the bio-composite. Bio-composite has a vast number of benefits compared to conventional bio-composites, due to having multiple benefits of wood and also plastic, such as having a low-carbon footprint, reusability and recyclability, lightweight, durable & flexible, high strength, and high performance. The other application where bio-composites have been used are in the biomedical aspect, specifically tissue engineering implementation. The objective is to investigate out the proper preparation method, dimension uniformity and 3D printability of the PLA/PCL/HAp bio-composite. Methods such as Injection molding, indirect 3D printing and solvent casting will be conducted in order to find out the most suitable preparation to form the bio-composite scaffold. A ratio of PLA/PCL.HAp is then used in order to find out the most suitable blend of the scaffold, and finally factors such as the 3D printability and the dimension uniformity will be analysed once establishing the correct ratio. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) analysis are done to review factors such as cell attachments, osteoblasts, and interconnectivity of the bio-composite scaffold. Controlled tests will also be conducted for comparison purposes and potential to identify the most suitable ratio quicker.The expected outcomes that can be obtained is to identify and analyze the most suitable method in to preparing the fabrication of scaffold for the 3D printing filament of the PLA/PCL/HA bio-composite, as well as the correct ratio of the bio-composite blend. Finally, the 3D printability and the dimension uniformity of the bio-composite to ensure other researches to obtain factors & information on mixing PLA/PCL/HAp together such as the porous structure, the interconnectivity of the cells, promotion of cell attachment, osteoblasts and the mechanical & thermal properties of the bio-composite. the bio-composite formed would enable a potential future to commercialize and promote PLA/PCL/HAp bio-composite scaffolds in the 3D printing technology department and implementation in the bio-medical industry.