Drying And Extraction Of Moringa Oleifera And Its Application In Wastewater Treatment
In wastewater treatment, the process of coagulation helps in reducing the amount of contaminants in the wastewater, mainly the turbidity and it also helps in removing the color of the dye from the industrial wastewater efficiently. The process of coagulation can be performed either by using natural coagulants or conventional coagulants. Conventional coagulants such as aluminum sulfate and ferric sulphate have proved to be harmful to human health as it may cause neurological diseases like Alzheimer's and percentile dementia. These health concerns have led to the use of natural coagulants which are environmental friendly and not harmful to human health. In this study, Moringa Oleifera seeds are selected to study the preparation of the natural coagulant and further use it in dye wastewater treatment. The two important steps used in preparing the natural coagulants are drying of the raw materials and extraction of the protein content. Moringa Oleifera seeds were oven-dried at 40C, 50C, and 60C and the drying data was recorded. The recorded data was then fitted into five thin layer kinetic models to obtain the most suitable drying temperature and its corresponding drying time. Using Microsoft Excel Solver 2011, values of (R^2), (RMSE), and chi-square (X^2 ) were calculated. Based on the highest value of (R^2 ) and lowest value of (RMSE), Page kinetic model was selected. Moreover, for the selected Page kinetic model, values of (R^2 ) and (X^2 ) were also compared for all three temperatures, and the temperature with the highest (R^2 ) value and lowest chi-square value (X^2) was selected as the most optimum drying temperature. The most optimum drying temperature for drying Moringa Oleifera seeds in an oven drier was obtained as 50C as the seeds dried at this temperature hold the maximum protein content concentration which enhances its coagulation properties. Furthermore, the corresponding drying time of about 6.5 hours for seeds dried at 50C was also taken as the most optimum drying time. In the next step, Moringa Oleifera seeds which have been dried at 50C for 6.5 hours were used for protein extraction. Solid to solvent ratios of 0.5:100, 1:100, 2:100, and 5: 100 (g of dried Moringa Oleifera seeds: ml of distilled water) was used to extract the protein by using a domestic blender for 2 minutes. Using the Bradford method, the absorbance for each solid to solvent ratio solution was recorded and the protein content concentration was further calculated. The highest protein content concentration of 0.0017 ug/uL was obtained in the best solid to the solvent ratio which is 5.0: 100. Therefore, this solid to solvent ratio was used in the jar test. The jar test was based on three process parameters which include coagulant dosage, pH, and initial concentration of dye wastewater. Hence, the jar test was performed three-time, each time a process parameter was varied keeping the other two constants, and the results for turbidity removal and color removal were measured. By the turbidity removal and color removal results, it is evaluated that a coagulant dosage of 300 mg/L, 50 ppm as an initial concentration of dye wastewater, and a pH of 7 were selected as the most optimum process parameters for a maximum turbidity removal of 70.4% and maximum color removal of 44.54% in the dye wastewater treatment with Moringa Oleifera seeds.