Synthesise a sustainable bioenergy supply chain

Palm oil plant can be considered as the perfect crop for sustainable agriculture as it is able to grow in most soil condition and the palm oil which extracted from the palm oil fruit can be widely used in different fields after being process. However, huge amount of palm oil biomass and POME will be generated when extracting the palm oil from the fruit. Since The palm oil biomass waste is rich in lignocellulosic fibres, it has the potential to be converted into green energy such as bioelectricity instead of just wasting the biomass. via different pathway of processes such as the thermal conversion pathway and biochemical conversion pathway. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical approach to synthesis sustainable supply chain of biomass to electricity by implementing the CHP system in palm oil mill and generated the optimum pathway of supply chain based on the technical, economical, and environmental aspect. The purpose of this approach is to assists the industry players or owners to make decision in choosing the location of the pre-treatment technology, transportation method, location of power plant and configuration of CHP. A generic superstructure was firstly developed in order to achieve the objective. Besides, A series of generic mathematical equations will then be formulated based on the pathways that demonstrated in the generic superstructure. The mathematical equations involve general mass and energy balance, cost computation and carbon emission. The fuzzy optimization concept will be adopted in this research to trade-off the conflicting objectives (maximize profit and minimize carbon footprint) in order to generate the optimum pathway. A palm oil-based bioelectricity supply chain case study in Selangor, Malaysia is solved to illustrate the presented approach. According to the optimized result in this case study, a total of 3753.36 MW of bioelectricity can be generated per year. On the other hand, RM 7.25 million per year of net profit is estimated with a 2.81 years of payback period. Moreover, the CHP system is able to achieve 570 million kg CO2 per year.