The effect of impurities in black liquor-derivedcarbonaceous compound on direct carbon fuel cell performance

The significance of utilizing biochar as the fuel source for Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) has contribute to a higher conversion efficiency which is about 80% and it has a potential to replace coal in the energy production field. Researches have shown that carbonaceous compound derived from black-liquor contains high amount of fixed carbon and it results in good electrical performance for DCFC. However, the structural analysis reviews that the presence of impurities such as silica is significant and it restricts the performance of DCFC. Hence, this research focuses on the possibilities of sodium carbonate concentrations to remove silica of lignin-derived from black-liquor. It is proven to be the best alkaline solution that is able to remove the silica content from lignin is the sodium carbonate alkaline. Two different concentration of sodium carbonate solutions of (0.5 M and 1M) were added to the lignin samples and heated up to 96℃ in a water bath for an hour. Once the samples have been dried in the oven, those samples were pyrolyzed in the horizontal tube furnace for the biochar production and the biochar yield was obtained. The biochar production yield for all the samples were more than 50%. The best sodium carbonate concentration to be utilized will be identified in this paper. The physio-chemical characteristic before and after pyrolyzed of the carbonaceous compound such as the surface functional group, proximate analysis and the element composition were further analysed using the thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. According to the approximate analysis, the ash content has increased for the samples that are pyrolyzed and it can be clearly seen on the Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry as well.