Viscosity and FTIR analysis of Blood Mimicking Fluid Formulation

Blood Mimicking Fluid (BMF) needs to be formulated with high similarity to the physical properties of actual blood for surgical simulation using 3D-printed models of human anatomies. BMF comprises of a mixture of distilled water, glycerol and polysaccharides. Previous studies have shown that with the decrease in water content and an increase in glycerol, the percentage of similarity in terms of viscosity relative to blood increases. Preceding studies that were made have a relatively high percentage of difference, which shows the need of better formulation. Currently, the formulation was mainly based on viscosity measurement at only one temperature and without the analysis of chemical structure. Hence, this research aims to formulate a BMF that is made up of water, glycerol and xanthan gum and investigate the relationship of its functional group using FTIR Spectroscopy and also the viscosity change of different compositions of the BMF to the change in temperature. The molecular interaction of the components in the BMF was also being investigated to determine which composition can mimic the properties of blood the best. Initially, base fluid that consist of water to glycerol ratio of 79 wt.% : 21 wt.% were made. Consequently, for the main sample, water was removed at the increment of 0.2 wt.% up until 0.6 wt.%, with each removal, xanthan gum was being added into the sample at the equivalent amount of the water removal percentage. Hence, six samples were produced from the main sample. Lastly, these six samples were added with 7.5ml of contrast agent and were tested using and FTIR spectroscopy to determine the molecular interaction of the mixture. The samples were also then carried out a viscosity test using a rheometer to determine the viscosity changes at different temperatures of 20℃,25℃ and 37℃. The data collected from the viscosity test were analysed amongst each other and also to the actual blood. A conclusion that was obtained was that with the usage of high percentage of water, data showed a preponderance of the characteristics of water which is mainly dominant due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding. From the viscosity point of view, viscosity shear thinning increases following the increase in xanthan gum at the human body temperature, it can be concluded that the xanthan gum adds shear thinning effect and changes the rheology of the base fluid from Newtonian to non-Newtonian.