Geometry Design and Optimization of Piston by Using Finite Element Method

Piston with lower stress, temperature and deformation has longer service lifetime. Thus, the purpose of this study is to design four different piston geometries with different piston head shapes to determine the shape of piston head which gives lower values of these parameters. The four piston head shapes are flat-top piston, bowl piston, square bowl piston and dome piston. Besides, the piston is optimized by using Topology Optimization to remove excessive material. The study is carried out by researching and calculating dimension of a piston based on cylinder of a spark ignition engine. Four pistons with similar dimension but with different piston head shape are modelled using Solidworks. These four designs are analysed using Static Structural and Steady State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS Workbench to obtain stress, deformation and temperature distribution for all these designs. Next, optimization of piston is done by using Topology Optimization to identify non-essential parts that can be removed. The optimized piston design is modelled using Solidworks and analysed using ANSYS. The results of stress, deformation and temperature obtained from ANSYS for original and optimized piston geometries are obtained and tabulated to make comparison. It is found that bowl piston has lower stress, deformation and temperature. The stress, deformation and temperature of optimized piston is lower than original piston. The mass of optimized piston is 5 percent less than original piston.