Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Modified Biopolymeric Membrane For Greywater treatment
Lack of clean freshwater is one the most concerning environmental issues faced by the world. Currently, the total amounts of freshwater in the Earth outnumbers and exceeds the human demands with 3% of that water being for direct extraction and the 97% are found in oceans. This has become the main driving force of research into alternative ways of recycling and treatments of greywater as studies show around 15 liters are daily average usage per person. Thus, the investigations of current treatment methods show limitations such as in the xenobiotic organic matters compounds (XCOs) escape during treatment. Membrane technology using biopolymers of chitosan and alginate modified by loading graphene oxide (GO) are presented to be promising feedstocks for treatment of greywater using biopolymeric membrane. Thus, this research could contribute to the development of a novel membrane material that could provide effective, stable, and most importantly excellent removal efficiency and specially the removal of XOCs. The challenging part of the study is the membrane modification, with successive formulation of the membrane, these objectives mentioned above will be found with determining the best combination of feedstocks concentration to obtain the best performance results in terms of pollutants removal efficiency. This investigation will be conducted by creating composite solution of the biopolymers and GO to be stirred (800 and 1300rpm for 4h), degassed (24h) and dried in oven (60℃ for 24h). after membrane fabrication, testing of the membrane with greywater is conducted such as physical properties (COD, BOD, Porosity..etc), water flux, swelling equilibrium and molecular weight cut-off as examples. The results from these testing will be obtained and analyzed using set of equipment such as Goniometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and texture analyzer. The expected outcome after obtaining the results relates to the removal of XOCs of excellent amount as percentage of 95% and more. While the second anticipation is to have higher removal percentages of different parameters involved the process (COD, BOD, ..etc) then the current once using current treatments method. The expectation is to have higher results then the following results of 99.9% of turbidity, 100% of TSS, 83.2% of COD, 53.7% of BOD5, 100% of E. coli, 100% other coliforms and 99.7% of pathogenic bacteria.