The Formulation of Blood Mimicking Fluid for Application in Medical Simulator under Angiography Visualization

Blood mimicking fluid (BMF) is blood that accurately mimics real human blood. BMF is commonly used in 3D printed medical simulators for pre-surgical planning and simulation or intraoperative orientation to assist surgeons on cardiac surgical procedures. The addition of polysaccharide particles such as xanthan gum have been found to match the viscosity as well as elastic components of the highly complex viscosity of blood when tested over a large range of shear rates. This research aims to develop a newly formulated BMF containing polysaccharide particles via varying the percent composition of chitosan-xanthan gum-starch -water-glycerol-contrast agent mixture. Additionally, the viscosity of the formulated BMF is compared with actual blood and the chemical structure changes during BMF formulation are observed. A total of 28 BMF samples consisting of different components and component ratios is prepared and the chemical structure changes are investigated via the analysis of the functional groups obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements at 20˚C, 25˚C and 37˚C. The viscosity of the formulated BMF samples is analyzed and compared with the properties of actual human blood at 20˚C, 25˚C and 37˚C. The viscosity is measured at shear rates ranging from 0.01-1000s-1 with an interval of 100. The results are tabulated and compared with actual human blood. It is expected that BMF samples 4G, 4H and 4I could obtain the smallest viscosity percentage difference when compared to viscosity of actual blood. The investigation of the intermolecular structure changes during BMF formulation via FTIR spectroscopy analysis is expected to contribute a new knowledge in the field of BMF formulation.