Treatment of Greywater by Using Artocarpus Heterophyllus Seeds as A Natural Coagulant

Greywater is non-industrial wastewater, it is generated from domestic wastewater such as washing dishes, laundry, and bathing. Up to 50-80% comes from residential wastewater. It contains suspended solid from 45- 330 mg/ L, turbidity from 22- > 200 NTU and at the pH of 6.6 to 8.7. The untreated greywater contains a lot of bacteria that will cause a bad impact on society and the environment. The coagulation and flocculation method was introduced to remove the turbidity and the Chemical Oxygen Demand of the greywater. Chemical coagulants, especially Aluminium Sulphate or synthetic organic polymers are used as coagulant aid and it has been a conventional coagulant. The major drawback of the conventional coagulant is the presence of aluminium residuals in the treated water has badly impacted health such as the development of neurological disease (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases). Consequently, the use of Artocarpus Heterophyllus seeds as a natural coagulant for the removal of turbidity and COD have been proposed to tackle this issue. Artocarpus Heterophyllus seeds has been chosen to be the natural coagulant because due to its mass production and availability in Malaysia. Besides that, the seeds have more than 50% of total starch content and protein content which are the characteristic of a coagulant. There are 3 objectives the study aims 1) to characterize the functional group, protein content, and the zeta potential of Artocarpus Heterophyllus seeds. 2) To investigate the suitable conditions such as coagulant dosage, pH of wastewater and temperature of the Artocarpus Heterophyllus to treat the greywater. 3) To compare the performance of Artocarpus Heterophyllus with Aluminium Sulphate as the conventional coagulant to treat greywater based on the percentage of turbidity removal and COD removal. The research will be carried out using FTIR spectroscopy and zeta analyzer to characterize the functional group and the surface charge of the natural coagulant, to identify functional group of a coagulant such as -OH, -COOH and -NH is present in the seeds. Jar test will be carried out to find the suitable conditions for Artocarpus Heterophyllus to treat the greywater from the bathroom collected from the residence. The suitable condition for Artocarpus Heterophyllus will be used for Aluminium Sulphate as the conventional coagulant to treat greywater. The performance comparison between the natural coagulant and conventional chemical coagulant will be based on the percentage of turbidity and COD removal. The expected conditions for coagulation using Artrocarpus Heterophyllus seeds in turbidity and COD removal are pH 2-4, initial greywater concentration of 100 ppm and coagulant dosage of 20-50mg/L.