Geometry design and optimization of piston by using finite element method

This project aims to design and analyze different piston geometries by using finite element method, and determine the effect of different piston head shape on piston performance. Besides, the optimization of piston design is also carried out in order to reduce material cost and increase piston performance.

Piston is the important engine component which reciprocates back and forth in the cylinder. Better piston performance is always desirable to increase the lifetime of piston and reduce maintenance cost. Piston geometry does affect piston performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of piston geometries on piston performance and determine the shape of piston head which gives better performance. Besides, optimization of piston design is carried out to increase piston performance based on the analysis of piston using Finite Element Analysis. The study is mainly focused on the piston based on cylinder of a spark ignition engine. Four pistons with similar dimension but different piston head shape are modelled using Solidworks. These four designs are analysed using static structural analysis, steady state analysis and thermal analysis in ANSYS Workbench to obtain stress, deformation and temperature distribution in all these designs. Next, optimization of piston design is done by removing excessive piston material to reduce mass of piston. The non-essential part of piston is identified by conducting topology optimization in ANSYS. The optimized piston design is modelled using Solidworks and analysed using ANSYS. The results of stress, deformation and temperature obtained from ANSYS for original and optimized piston geometries are obtained and tabulated to make comparison. The findings is expected to determine the piston geometries which gives the better piston performance. The top surface of piston crown is suggested to experience a higher amount of stress and temperature changes. The stress and temperature changes for the optimized piston design is expected to be lower than that for the original piston geometries. By optimizing the piston design, it will reduce the temperature, degree of deformation and increase piston performance by decreasing stress. It will further reduce the cost of material and thus extending lifetime of piston.

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